Vaccines are an important tool for halting the spread of the pandemic such as COVID-19, influenza, etc. In excess of 100 competitors were in the race to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine (Pogue et al 2020). Though the COVID-19 vaccine was launched on a fast track, it took entry in the market just nine months after the virus was identified (Bhartiya et al, 2021). Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and are being applied in various parts of the world. To develop a COVID-19 vaccine to stop the disease’s spread and devastating consequences by covering the maximum variant of the virus, the racing between candidates is still on (Felter, 2021 and Chan et al., 2015) and as the pandemic progresses, more successful latest vaccines are likely to be produced. Nevertheless, it is crucial to evaluate the people acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations for successfully delivering vaccines (Reiter et al, 2020) as some scholars perceived that the large populace has moderately high vaccine indecision on current vaccinations and also, the distribution of vaccination is not adequate (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al. 2019).

While the focus is more on the development of a COVD-19 vaccine, less attention has been paid to the extent to which a vaccine will be accepted in Africa. The introduction of another health intervention is not really trailed by acknowledgment and adoption by communities. There are several, demographic, individual, socio-political, financial, and cultural dimensions that interplay to influence the adoption and implementation of new health interventions. Few studies conducted on acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine have brought about varied outcomes with degrees as low as 37% and as high as 86% (Neumann-Bohme, S., 2020).

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious country. Knowledges with the GAVI-sustained routine immunization program reveals vaccination coverage rates varies throughout the nation with higher coverage rates in the southern states compared to the north, and within states, higher coverage rates in urban compared to rural areas. Disparities in rates are also observed when comparison is made across caretaker literacy levels, family wealth index and caretaker age (NBS, 2018). The polio vaccination refusal saga in 3 states in northern part of Nigeria between 2003 and 2004 is an ugly reminder of how public distrust of government aims and the international community, political as well as religious discordances and poor community engagement can disrupt a vaccination program intended for the good of the people with grave consequences (Jegede, A. S. 2007). It stresses the need for a clear understanding of the context-specific factors that may influence a COVID-19 vaccination program in Nigeria, and the timely implementation of strategies to achieve high coverage rates when a vaccine eventually becomes available in the country.

However, there is widespread opposition to take vaccinations among Nigeria’s mass people. A portion of Nigerian citizens is hesitant to take vaccines and according due to the fear of unknown side effect. However, it is necessary to get vaccinated so that they can be freed from being covid-19 pandemic. Be that as it may, the inquiry is if they can take the vaccine or not? What are their views on the vaccine program? What are the factors that impact their choices? To answer these questions, this study aims to investigate knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in almost all areas of life all over the world. Education, especially medical education, is one of the areas negatively affected by the pandemic. Medical schools were also suspended during the Covid-19 pandemic, and as such, many students were at home. This has disrupted the medical education process. There have been problems in bedside and practical training with online medical education. Although time is needed to accurately predict the effects of the pandemic on education, it is predicted that it may pose important problems for the learning experience and professional development of medical students (Sani I, et al; 2020).

It is known that the most beneficial method for the whole world to get rid of the negative effects of the pandemic is vaccination against COVID-19. It is possible with vaccination on the return of medical education and medical faculty students to normal life (Bish A and Michie S. 2010). Although vaccination seems to be the way out of the pandemic, the willingness of individuals to be vaccinated is also important in combating the pandemic. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it has reported that the acceptability of influenza vaccination among adults in the USA was between 50-64%. Nevertheless, there is no enough literature about the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the factors influencing it. Such information which acceptance rate and affecting factors are may be useful for improving COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (Gidengil, et al; 2012 and Horney JA, et al 2010). This study was aimed to determine COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and which factors are related vaccination willingness.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

        The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives include:

i)            To understand the spread and containment of Covid-19 in Nigeria

ii)          To examine the distribution of Covid-19 vaccines in Nigeria

iii)        To access the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine

iv)         To investigate the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State.

1.4   Research Questions

        The following statements were considered to be the research questions for this study:

i)            How did Covid-19 spread and contain in Nigeria?

ii)          How were the Covid-19 vaccines distributed in Nigeria?

iii)        What are the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine?

iv)         What are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State?

1.5      Research Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine.

1.6      Significance of the Study

The study on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo LGA will be of immense benefit to all the Nigeria citizens, the health sector, and the federal government of Nigeria. The study will explore the prevalence of corona virus disease (COVID-19), the causes, and the effect of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the present state of Nigeria. The study will educate the masses on the mode of transmission of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) and the preventive measures to be adopted and why it is important to take the vaccines to prevent the further spread of this pandemic virus. The study will educate the Nigeria government on the policy implementation to curb the prevalence of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) in this period. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the effect of corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the Nigeria economy.

1.6   Scope of the Study

The study will cover on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. A total one hundred respondents shall be selected for this study.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8   Definition of Terms

        The following terms were used in the course of carrying out this study:

Acceptance: a favorable attitude toward an idea, situation, person, or group.

Attitude: manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): it is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

Knowledge: is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects.

Pandemic: A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. It differs from an outbreak or epidemic because it: affects a wider geographical area, often worldwide; infects a greater number of people than an epidemic.

Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and affected most of the world in early 2020. To inform effective public health measures we conducted a research on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. This paper attempts to examine the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents of Uyo metropolis for analysis. Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting 200 respondents from the population. Descriptive statistics and correlation models have been used to analyze the data; that there is a significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine. It is observed that there is a high prevalence of low acceptance of vaccines in Uyo metropolis.

Part of the findings reveal that religious/cultural factors; higher risk for infection; and conspiracy theory about the vaccine are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State. Amongst all the recommendations raised, the study first suggested that there is need for the government to work with trusted bodies to reduce misinformation and allay the people’s fears by informing and involving religious and community leaders in Covid-19 vaccine.

Vaccines are an important tool for halting the spread of the pandemic such as COVID-19, influenza, etc. In excess of 100 competitors were in the race to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine (Pogue et al 2020). Though the COVID-19 vaccine was launched on a fast track, it took entry in the market just nine months after the virus was identified (Bhartiya et al, 2021). Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and are being applied in various parts of the world. To develop a COVID-19 vaccine to stop the disease’s spread and devastating consequences by covering the maximum variant of the virus, the racing between candidates is still on (Felter, 2021 and Chan et al., 2015) and as the pandemic progresses, more successful latest vaccines are likely to be produced. Nevertheless, it is crucial to evaluate the people acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations for successfully delivering vaccines (Reiter et al, 2020) as some scholars perceived that the large populace has moderately high vaccine indecision on current vaccinations and also, the distribution of vaccination is not adequate (van Doremalen et al 2020; Harapan et al. 2019).

While the focus is more on the development of a COVD-19 vaccine, less attention has been paid to the extent to which a vaccine will be accepted in Africa. The introduction of another health intervention is not really trailed by acknowledgment and adoption by communities. There are several, demographic, individual, socio-political, financial, and cultural dimensions that interplay to influence the adoption and implementation of new health interventions. Few studies conducted on acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine have brought about varied outcomes with degrees as low as 37% and as high as 86% (Neumann-Bohme, S., 2020).

Nigeria is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural and multi-religious country. Knowledges with the GAVI-sustained routine immunization program reveals vaccination coverage rates varies throughout the nation with higher coverage rates in the southern states compared to the north, and within states, higher coverage rates in urban compared to rural areas. Disparities in rates are also observed when comparison is made across caretaker literacy levels, family wealth index and caretaker age (NBS, 2018). The polio vaccination refusal saga in 3 states in northern part of Nigeria between 2003 and 2004 is an ugly reminder of how public distrust of government aims and the international community, political as well as religious discordances and poor community engagement can disrupt a vaccination program intended for the good of the people with grave consequences (Jegede, A. S. 2007). It stresses the need for a clear understanding of the context-specific factors that may influence a COVID-19 vaccination program in Nigeria, and the timely implementation of strategies to achieve high coverage rates when a vaccine eventually becomes available in the country.

However, there is widespread opposition to take vaccinations among Nigeria’s mass people. A portion of Nigerian citizens is hesitant to take vaccines and according due to the fear of unknown side effect. However, it is necessary to get vaccinated so that they can be freed from being covid-19 pandemic. Be that as it may, the inquiry is if they can take the vaccine or not? What are their views on the vaccine program? What are the factors that impact their choices? To answer these questions, this study aims to investigate knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions in almost all areas of life all over the world. Education, especially medical education, is one of the areas negatively affected by the pandemic. Medical schools were also suspended during the Covid-19 pandemic, and as such, many students were at home. This has disrupted the medical education process. There have been problems in bedside and practical training with online medical education. Although time is needed to accurately predict the effects of the pandemic on education, it is predicted that it may pose important problems for the learning experience and professional development of medical students (Sani I, et al; 2020).

It is known that the most beneficial method for the whole world to get rid of the negative effects of the pandemic is vaccination against COVID-19. It is possible with vaccination on the return of medical education and medical faculty students to normal life (Bish A and Michie S. 2010). Although vaccination seems to be the way out of the pandemic, the willingness of individuals to be vaccinated is also important in combating the pandemic. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it has reported that the acceptability of influenza vaccination among adults in the USA was between 50-64%. Nevertheless, there is no enough literature about the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the factors influencing it. Such information which acceptance rate and affecting factors are may be useful for improving COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (Gidengil, et al; 2012 and Horney JA, et al 2010). This study was aimed to determine COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and which factors are related vaccination willingness.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

        The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives include:

i)            To understand the spread and containment of Covid-19 in Nigeria

ii)          To examine the distribution of Covid-19 vaccines in Nigeria

iii)        To access the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine

iv)         To investigate the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State.

1.4   Research Questions

        The following statements were considered to be the research questions for this study:

i)            How did Covid-19 spread and contain in Nigeria?

ii)          How were the Covid-19 vaccines distributed in Nigeria?

iii)        What are the attitudes and acceptance of Nigerians toward Covid-19 vaccine?

iv)         What are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State?

1.5      Research Hypothesis

H0: There is no significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine.

1.6      Significance of the Study

The study on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo LGA will be of immense benefit to all the Nigeria citizens, the health sector, and the federal government of Nigeria. The study will explore the prevalence of corona virus disease (COVID-19), the causes, and the effect of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the present state of Nigeria. The study will educate the masses on the mode of transmission of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) and the preventive measures to be adopted and why it is important to take the vaccines to prevent the further spread of this pandemic virus. The study will educate the Nigeria government on the policy implementation to curb the prevalence of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) in this period. The study will serve as a repository of information to other researchers that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the effect of corona virus disease (COVID-19) on the Nigeria economy.

1.6   Scope of the Study

The study will cover on the knowledge attitude and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State, Nigeria. A total one hundred respondents shall be selected for this study.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8   Definition of Terms

        The following terms were used in the course of carrying out this study:

Acceptance: a favorable attitude toward an idea, situation, person, or group.

Attitude: manner, disposition, feeling, position, etc., with regard to a person or thing; tendency or orientation, especially of the mind.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): it is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell.

Knowledge: is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, skills, or objects.

Pandemic: A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. It differs from an outbreak or epidemic because it: affects a wider geographical area, often worldwide; infects a greater number of people than an epidemic.

 

 

 

 

Abstract

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged and affected most of the world in early 2020. To inform effective public health measures we conducted a research on the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. This paper attempts to examine the knowledge, attitude and acceptance of the covid-19 vaccine in Uyo local government area. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents of Uyo metropolis for analysis. Convenient sampling technique was used in selecting 200 respondents from the population. Descriptive statistics and correlation models have been used to analyze the data; that there is a significant relationship between the knowledge of covid-19 and the acceptance of its vaccine. It is observed that there is a high prevalence of low acceptance of vaccines in Uyo metropolis.

Part of the findings reveal that religious/cultural factors; higher risk for infection; and conspiracy theory about the vaccine are the challenges faced by the health workers toward the distribution of Covid-19 vaccine in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom, State. Amongst all the recommendations raised, the study first suggested that there is need for the government to work with trusted bodies to reduce misinformation and allay the people’s fears by informing and involving religious and community leaders in Covid-19 vaccine.